München, Germany
City population: 1346481
Duration: 2017 – ongoing
Implementation status: Ongoing
Scale: Meso-scale: Regional, metropolitan and urban level
Project area: unknown
Type of area: Other
Last updated: October 2021

The Climate Adaptation Strategy (CAS) was approved in 2016 and it includes various measures that aim to address various urban challenges (e.g. temperature rise, heat waves, heavy rainfalls, flooding)(Ref. 1, 2). The CAS is considered a key instrument for integrating green and blue measures in comprehensive planning. Here, the NBS is presented with a focus on two specific measures: (Reference 1) Integration of the Urban Climate Map in urban planning, focusing on the preservation of existing air corridors/channels through open green spaces. (Reference 2) Integration of other climate adaptation measures in urban planning instruments through open green areas, community rooftop gardens, trees, and water elements. (Reference 1)


Nature-based solution

  • Nature on buildings (external)
  • Green roofs
  • Grey infrastructure featuring greens
  • Alley and street greens
  • Riverbank/Lakeside greens
  • Parks and urban forests
  • Green corridors and green belts
  • Community gardens and allotments
  • Community gardens
  • Blue infrastructure
  • Rivers/streams/canals/estuaries

Key challenges

  • Climate action for adaptation, resilience and mitigation (SDG 13)
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Water management (SDG 6)
  • Flood protection
  • Stormwater and rainfall management and storage
  • Green space, habitats and biodiversity (SDG 15)
  • Habitat and biodiversity conservation
  • Green space creation and/or management
  • Environmental quality
  • Air quality improvement
  • Regeneration, land-use and urban development
  • Regulation of built environment
  • Health and well-being (SDG 3)
  • Creation of opportunities for recreation


Strategy, plan or policy development

Project objectives

- Address urban sustainability challenges such as temperature rise, heat waves, heavy rainfalls, as well as related challenges such as health and well-being, (Reference 1) droughts, flooding, and storms (Reference 2). - Integration of climate change considerations (including NBS) into comprehensive and detailed planning. - Measure 1: Linked to compensation function, data basis, climate-relevant green spaces, awareness building. The Urban Climate Map enables the city to help the preservation of existing air corridors/channels, and eventually expand them and/or create new ones through the assessment of open and green areas. (Reference 1) - Measure 2: aims to identify and concretize how climate change adaptation can be further integrated into the different levels and instruments of urban planning, especially in the context of detailed planning with a focus on open and green areas. Linked to awareness-raising, quality of living, climate effective open spaces. (Reference 1)

Implementation activities

- The General Assembly of the City Council on November 15, 2016 approved the concept of measures to adapt to climate change in the state capital of Munich. (Reference 4) - Creation or maintenance of open green spaces, rooftop gardens, (large) trees, and water elements. - Integration of the Urban Climate Map in urban planning with a focus on the preservation of existing air corridors/channels through open green spaces (related to measure 1). - Integration of other climate adaptation measures in urban planning instruments through open green areas, community rooftop gardens, trees, and water elements (related to measure 2) (Ref. 1).

Climate-focused activities

Climate change adaptation:

  • Increase or improve urban vegetation cover to help reduce outdoor temperature
  • Create or improve outdoor spaces to help people escape from urban heat
  • Renaturalization of rivers and other water bodies

Biodiversity conservation or restoration-focused activities

Biodiversity conservation:

  • Protect and enhance urban habitats
  • Preserve and strengthen existing habitats and ecosystems
  • Reduce negative impacts and avoid the alteration/damage of ecosystem
  • Means for conservation governance
  • Manage biological resources for conservation and sustainable use
  • Capacity building

Main beneficiaries

  • Citizens or community groups
  • Other


Management set-up

  • Government-led

Type of initiating organisation

  • Regional government
  • Local government/municipality

Participatory approaches/ community involvement

  • Consultation (e.g. workshop, surveys, community meetings, town halls)
  • Other

Details on the roles of the organisations involved in the project

Regarding the implementation of Measures 1&2 of the Strategy, i.e. the integration of adaptation into planning: Planning Department, in close collaboration with the Department of Health and Environment (who is the lead for developing the Urban Climate Map, the urban climate data and the adaptation strategy). (Reference 1) Bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (bifa) and the Institute for Ecological Economic Research (IÖW) supported the process and wrote the final report. (Reference 5)

Project implemented in response to ...

... an EU policy or strategy? Yes (Munich closely follows EU and national adaptation guidelines (e.g. Agenda 21). European Adaptation Strategy, EU Directive on the assessment of the effects of plans and programs on the environment, EU directive on flora, fauna and habitats (Ref. 1). )
... a national policy or strategy? Yes (German Adaptation Strategy, Guidelines from the German Association for Water, Sewage and Waste, DIN standards for water management (Ref. 1) Strategic Guidelines on Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation / Implementation Strategy (Ref.2))
... a local policy or strategy? Yes (Bavarian Adaptation Strategy, Bavarian nature protection law, Bavarian Building Code, Regional Plan (Ref. 1) and Munich's Strategic Guidelines on Climate Change, Isar Plan (Reference 2))


Total cost


Source(s) of funding

  • Public national budget

Type of funding

  • Direct funding (grants, subsidies, or self-financed projects by private entities)

Non-financial contribution


Impacts and Monitoring

Environmental impacts

  • Climate change
  • Strengthened capacity to address climate hazards/natural disasters
  • Enhanced carbon sequestration
  • Environmental quality
  • Improved air quality
  • Water management and blue areas
  • Improved water quality
  • Increased protection against flooding
  • Green space and habitat
  • Promotion of naturalistic styles of landscape design for urban development
  • Increased number of protection areas
  • Increased green space area
  • Increased conservation or restoration of ecosystems
  • Reduced biodiversity loss

Economic impacts

  • Unknown

Socio-cultural impacts

  • Social justice and cohesion
  • Improved liveability
  • Health and wellbeing
  • Gain in activities for recreation and exercise
  • Education
  • Increased knowledge of locals about local nature
  • Other

Type of reported impacts

Expected impacts

Presence of formal monitoring system


Presence of indicators used in reporting


Presence of monitoring/ evaluation reports

No evidence in public records

Availability of a web-based monitoring tool

No evidence in public records