Muanda , Congo - Kinshasa
City population: 50000
Duration: 2015 – ongoing
Implementation status: Ongoing
Scale: Meso-scale: Regional, metropolitan and urban level
Project area: unknown
Type of area: Residental, Natural Heritage Area, Public Greenspace Area
Last updated: October 2021

The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s coastal zone stretches 40 km and comprises the towns of Muanda, Banana and Nsiamfumu. The problem of coastal erosion has intensified since 1980 with the significant retreat of the coast in the Banana-Muanda segment, this retreat has been estimated as much as 2,300 meters. According to the report of the second national communication on climate change (2010), the Democratic Republic of Congo’s coastal zone, with a coastline of about 40km, is facing coastal erosion due to a combined effect of topography, sandy nature of the soil and ocean dynamics (height and direction of the swell, tide height, current velocity, storms etc.). With the rate of shoreline retreat that is likely, it is expected that the road between Banana-Muanda will be completely lost between 2050 and 2100. The proportion of lands lost to encroaching sea will double (200 m around Nsiamfumu and 100 m between Muanda city and Banana). In total, DRC can expect to see the reach of its coastal zone reduced from 50-100 m by 2100. To respond to some of these complex challenges the Department of Environment, Nature Conservation and Tourism, Democratic Republic of Congo implemented the present intervention partnering with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). (1,2)

Climate change effects
https://www.adiac-congo.com/content/moanda-kongo-central-le-phenomene-deplace-climatique-devrait-croitre-dans-les-annees-venir

Overview

Nature-based solution

  • Community gardens and allotments
  • Horticulture
  • Blue infrastructure
  • Coastlines
  • Mangroves

Key challenges

  • Climate action for adaptation, resilience and mitigation (SDG 13)
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Climate change mitigation
  • Water management (SDG 6)
  • Flood protection
  • Coastal resilience and marine protection (SDG 14)
  • Coastal protection
  • Marine and biodiversity protection
  • Green space, habitats and biodiversity (SDG 15)
  • Habitat and biodiversity restoration
  • Green space creation and/or management
  • Social justice, cohesion and equity (SDG 10)
  • Environmental education

Focus

Creation of new green areas, Coastal landscape management or protection, Knowledge creation and awareness raising

Project objectives

The different national reports on coastal vulnerability (NAPA, SNC and Programme on Coastal Erosion) clearly indicate that land, biodiversity socio-economic infrastructure and community livelihood will be seriously affected by coastal erosion caused, as in a domino effect, by climate change. As such, more precisely, the goals of the intervention are: 1. To address the root causes of information gaps, lack of technical knowledge to effectively support communities to identify, plan, design and implement adaptation options. 2. To integrate climate risks information into relevant planning policies through the mapping of climate change-induced coastal erosion risk profiles. 3. To disseminate knowledge and to design an effective communication strategy to enhance understanding of climate change risks in the coastal zone, associated adaptation options costs/benefits, supporting policy planning policy process and sharing results and lessons generated from interventions made through this initiative. 4. To support the development of an Early Warning System (EWS) of coastal risk for local coastal communities. 5. To implement a menu of “soft” (re-vegetation, land planning, etc.) and “hard” adaptation measures (composite beach revetments, offshore breakwater, etc.) to stabilize cliffs, secure the operations of docking and unloading of fishing and minimise losses: regulation of mangrove development through the enhancement of mangrove area to enhance the capacity of coast to absorb increased wave/storm energy. 6. To promote environmental sustainability and gender equality with particular attention given to protecting coastal biodiversity and consider women involvement in the choice of climate-resilient options, in policy negotiation and implementation of adaptation activities. (1,2,3,4)

Implementation activities

It should be noted that, in addition to coastal infrastructure, UNDP has also rehabilitated the local administration office of the village of Nsiamfumu. In addition, UNDP responded to the population's demand by financing the construction of a modern market right next to the administrative building. This market will facilitate the sale of fishery products and many other commodities to meet the needs of the growing population of Nsiamfumu. Two anti-erosion feasibility studies were carried out: (1) for the construction of a boat landing stage (wharf) at Nsiamfufu; (2) and for cliff stabilization between Nsiamfumu and Muanda village . Management committees, participation of women was ensured, and it was established and train to supervise protection activities and maintain coastal defences infrastructures after construction. (1,2,6)

Climate-focused activities

Climate change adaptation:

  • Protect coastal ecosystems to prevent coastal erosion and pollution
  • Restore wetlands and/or coastal ecosystems to dissipate the effects of flooding and/or storms

Climate change mitigation:

  • Increase green urban nature for carbon storage (wetlands, tree cover)
  • Improve carbon sequestration through selection of more adaptable species
  • Raise public awareness of behaviours, lifestyle and cultural changes with mitigation potential

Biodiversity conservation or restoration-focused activities

Biodiversity restoration:

  • Rehabilitate and restore damaged or destroyed ecosystems
  • Restore species (native, endangered, or unspecified)
  • Public engagement

Main beneficiaries

  • Citizens or community groups
  • Marginalized groups: Low income citizens
  • Food producers and cultivators (i.e. farmers, gardeners)

Governance

Management set-up

  • Government-led

Type of initiating organisation

  • National government

Participatory approaches/ community involvement

  • Dissemination of information and education
  • Consultation (e.g. workshop, surveys)
  • Joint implementation (e.g. tree planting)

Details on the roles of the organisations involved in the project

The Department of Environment, Nature Conservation and Tourism, Democratic Republic of Congo is the leading institution with funding from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). At a local level, some volunteering organisations are involved as well. (1) The Ministry of Environment (MEN) will be the executing agency and take overall responsibility for the project. Under its Directorate of Sustainable Development, MEN already has experience executing the GEF –UNDP LDCF project on the Agriculture Sector and is also the overall agency responsible for the National Adaptation Programme. The MEN is hosting the National Committee in charge of the Marine and Coastal Environment. MEN will also be responsible for involving Local Government, Government Agencies, Private Sector and Civil Society, according to their mandate, on the implementation of project components. (3)

Project implemented in response to ...

... an EU policy or strategy? No
... a national policy or strategy? Yes (The intervention took into account the following national strategies: 1. The Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy Paper (PRGSP) for the 2011-2015 2. The National Action Plan for the sustainable management of marine and coastal environmental resources (PAN) as well as the National Programme to fight coastal erosion. (2,3))
... a local policy or strategy? Yes (Sources mention that at the local level there are Local Adaptation Plans and the project also address straightening the capacity of local authorities to respond to climate issues. (1,3))

Financing

Total cost

More than €4,000,000

Source(s) of funding

  • Multilateral funds (e.g. EBRD, Worldbank)

Type of funding

  • Direct funding or subsidy

Non-financial contribution

Type of non-financial contribution
  • Provision of land
  • Provision of labour
  • Provision of expertise
  • Exchange of services
Who provided the non-financial contribution?
  • Public authorities (e.g. land, utility services)
  • Citizens (e.g. volunteering)
  • Private sector (businesses, financial institution)

Impacts and Monitoring

Environmental impacts

  • Climate, energy and emissions
  • Strengthened capacity to address climate hazards/natural disasters
  • Enhanced carbon sequestration
  • Environmental quality
  • Improved soil quality
  • Water management and blue areas
  • Increased protection against flooding
  • Green space and habitat
  • Increased green space area
  • Reduced biodiversity loss

Economic impacts

  • Stimulate development in deprived areas

Socio-cultural impacts

  • Safety
  • Improved community safety to climate-related hazards
  • Social justice and cohesion
  • Increased visibility and opportunity for marginalised groups or indigenous peoples
  • Education
  • Increased knowledge of locals about local nature
  • Increased awareness of NBS and their benefits

Type of reported impacts

Expected impacts, Achieved impacts

Presence of formal monitoring system

Yes

Presence of indicators used in reporting

Yes

Presence of monitoring/ evaluation reports

Yes

Availability of a web-based monitoring tool

No evidence in public records

References

Renovated areas
https://eco-vertes.info/environnement-le-pnud-vole-au-secours-de-la-zone-cotiere-de-moanda/
mangroves importance
https://www.thegef.org/news/best-both-worlds-embracing-environmental-protection-pursuit-prosperity-democratic-republic
Sustainable living
https://www.thegef.org/news/best-both-worlds-embracing-environmental-protection-pursuit-prosperity-democratic-republic
Information about this nature-based solution was collected as part of the UNA global extension project funded by the British Academy.