Bangkok, Thailand
City population: 10539000
Duration: 2022 – ongoing
Implementation status: Ongoing
Scale: Micro-scale: District/neighbourhood level
Project area: 576000 m2
Type of area: Public Greenspace Area
Last updated: April 2023

To celebrate the 100th anniversary of Lumpini Park in 2025, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration initiated the extensive renovation of the park. Lumpini Park was the first public park in Thailand. It was first opened in 1925 and had been renovated once 50 years ago. The new Lumpini Park aims to enhance the history of the park, to provide space for people holding different cultural backgrounds and to create space for modern recreational activities, designed for everyone within the framework of 'climate action park' - a green area that has the ability to restore itself, promotes urban farming while also contributes to climate change adaptation through water management, air quality improvement and more. The project will promote high engagement with local people about their vision and concern for the park which will be integrated into the new design plan. The project is divided into three phases. The first phase involves renovating main infrastructures such as roads and water management systems. The second phase involves the construction of green and learning areas such as the resilient park, forest park, urban farming, learning centre and other recreational spaces. The third phase involves the development of underused areas. (Ref. 1,2,4,5,6)

Lumpini Park - Cultural space (render image)
Source: Ref.2

Overview

Nature-based solution

  • Blue infrastructure
  • Lakes/ponds
  • Rivers/streams/canals/estuaries
  • Community gardens and allotments
  • Community gardens
  • Green areas for water management
  • Sustainable urban drainage systems
  • Grey infrastructure featuring greens
  • Alley and street greens
  • Riverbank/Lakeside greens
  • Parks and urban forests
  • Large urban parks or forests

Key challenges

  • Climate action for adaptation, resilience and mitigation (SDG 13)
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Environmental quality
  • Air quality improvement
  • Green space, habitats and biodiversity (SDG 15)
  • Green space creation and/or management
  • Regeneration, land-use and urban development
  • Promote natural styles of landscape design for urban development
  • Water management (SDG 6)
  • Flood protection
  • Stormwater and rainfall management and storage
  • Improvements to water quality
  • Cultural heritage and cultural diversity
  • Protection of historic and cultural landscape/infrastructure
  • Promotion of cultural diversity
  • Health and well-being (SDG 3)
  • Enabling opportunities for physical activity
  • Creation of opportunities for recreation
  • Inclusive and effective governance (SDG 16)
  • Inclusive governance
  • Social justice, cohesion and equity (SDG 10)
  • Social interaction
  • Environmental education

Focus

Creation of semi-natural blue areas, Maintenance and management of urban nature existing green areas, Knowledge creation and awareness raising

Project objectives

The initial vision was to provide happiness to the people and to create a beautiful park for the city of Bangkok. The new renovation project of Lumpini Park aims to deliver the same vision and enhance the multiple functions further. There are five main goals that shape the overall design of the new park. (Ref. 2,4,5,6) 1. To keep and emphasize the history of the park. The area holds many history and memories of the people throughout these 100 years. 2. To enhance cultural integration and social interaction through nature, learning activities and art. The park aims to bring people together and at the same time closer to nature. 3. To promote modern recreational activities, through the improvement of existing activity areas and the introduction of new ones to accommodate both existing users and invite new people with new interests. 4. To design a space for everyone. The park’s design offers facilities and elements that accommodate and is safe for all people regardless of their age, functional diversities or other factors. 5. To promote climate action and build a regenerative city through the development and improvement of the green-blue infrastructure of the park - following the so called 'climate action park' framework. Accordingly, the park also aims to enhance urban ecology and biodiversity, foster self-regeneration of nature within the park and promote urban food security. Along with the goals for re-designing the park, this project also aims to renovate and improve all main infrastructure systems of the park to better support the people and the new landscape design. (Ref. 1,2,5)

Implementation activities

- Emphasize Lumpini Park's history: 1. Keep the existing alignment of the main road, which is also the main axis of the park, and re-design the whole path then name this road the ‘100 years Lumpini Park’. - Enhance cultural diversity by providing space for different cultures and encourage social interactions through nature, learning activities and art: 1. Building a learning centre for arts and cultural activities. 2. Creation of an outdoor amphitheatre for events and other entertainment activities. 3. Establishment of an outdoor cultural park 4. Creation of a Chinese garden 5. Creation of a canteen or food court 6. Establishment of learning area for urban farming 7. Building of the ‘100 years Lumpini Park building’ which will be a multipurpose indoor space for a variety of activities. 8. Renovation of the ‘green bridge’ that connects Lumpini Park with Benchakiti Park. 9. Establishment of a learning park that raises awareness about environmental issues and urban ecologies such as native plants and other organisms that can be found in the park. This includes the establishment of learning trails in the forest park. 10. Establishment of an area for dogs 11. Creation of a library and garden for reading book 12. Viewing point to overlook the park and surrounding city area - Modern recreation: 1. Provide space for existing activities but with a new design to enhance their function. Examples of existing activities are running, cycling, tai chi, different types of dancing, outdoor fitness, playground and gathering space with tables and chairs. 2. Provide space for new activities such as paddle board, kayak, skate park, extreme sports and sports club. 3. Create pathways and space for recreation along the water edge. 4. Provide facilities that support the users and activities such as better restrooms and secure locker rooms or a storage area. - Design for everyone: 1. Inclusive design (similar to universal design). The detailed design elements for this point is not yet defined but the designer indicates concern towards the elderly, disabled, LGBTQ and homeless groups regarding pathways (safe for the elderly and people with functional diversities), genderless toilet and bench that are safe for the homeless people. - Climate Action and Regenerative City: 1. Resilient park - improve existing ponds and create natural space and canals within the park that can help detain rainwater, increase infiltration, filter and improve surface water quality by using plants before released to nearby canals outside the park's area. This area can help mitigate flood and the water that has been collected can be used to water vegetation within the park, especially during the dry season. 2. Forest park - Check the current health and conditions of all existing trees and plantings and plan strategies for improvement and how new to integrate new planting. Introduce new vegetation by selecting diverse planting types and species, all native to Thailand, which are easy to maintain. This forest area can help support urban ecology, and urban wildlife, enhance biodiversity, mitigate air pollution and reduce local temperature. - In terms of infrastructures and operational systems within the park, there are several actions being planned including: 1. Water management system - build underground water storage that can hole up to 40,000 cubic meters. 2. Lighting and electricity system - move all electrical wires underground and repair all lighting in the park. 3. Renovating all bridges within the park to improve the connection of pathways. 4. Renovating fences around the park together with doors and security buildings. 5. Renovating and redesigning signage within the park. 6. Increase parking space (potentially underground parking). (Ref. 1,2,3,5,6)

Climate-focused activities

Climate change adaptation:

  • Implement solutions to capture/store water to increase its availability and prevent shortages from droughts
  • Increase or improve urban vegetation cover to help reduce outdoor temperature
  • Implement sustainable urban drainage infrastructure (e.g. to make space for water)

Main beneficiaries

  • Citizens or community groups

Governance

Management set-up

  • Co-governance with government and non-government actors

Type of initiating organisation

  • Local government/municipality

Participatory approaches/ community involvement

  • Consultation (e.g. workshop, surveys, community meetings, town halls)

Details on the roles of the organisations involved in the project

Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) and its Environmental Department are the main actors in initiating this project. Landprocess, a landscape architectural company based in Bangkok, Thailand won the design competition organised by BMA and became the lead designer in this project. Other consultants and professionals in related fields have been invited to co-design the park. For example, historical and cultural landscape experts, arborists, landscape ecology experts, and environmental and water engineers. All local people (all groups of people who use Lumpini Park) were invited to share their visions and expectations for Lumpini Park through exhibitions, talks and workshops as well as online forms. (Ref. 1,2,3)

Project implemented in response to ...

... an EU policy or strategy? No
... a national policy or strategy? No
... a local policy or strategy? No

Financing

Total cost

More than €4,000,000

Source(s) of funding

  • Public local authority budget

Type of funding

  • Direct funding

Non-financial contribution

Unknown

Impacts and Monitoring

Environmental impacts

  • Climate change
  • Lowered local temperature
  • Strengthened capacity to address climate hazards/natural disasters
  • Environmental quality
  • Improved air quality
  • Water management and blue areas
  • Improved water quality
  • Increased protection against flooding
  • Reduced risk of damages by drought
  • Green space and habitat
  • Promotion of naturalistic styles of landscape design for urban development
  • Increased number of species present
  • Enhanced support of pollination

Economic impacts

  • Unknown

Socio-cultural impacts

  • Social justice and cohesion
  • Increased visibility and opportunity for marginalised groups or indigenous peoples
  • Increased opportunities for social interaction
  • Increased access to healthy/affordable food
  • Health and wellbeing
  • Gain in activities for recreation and exercise
  • Cultural heritage and sense of place
  • Promotion of cultural diversity
  • Protection of historic and cultural landscape / infrastructure
  • Increased appreciation for natural spaces
  • Education
  • Increased knowledge of locals about local nature

Type of reported impacts

Expected impacts

Presence of formal monitoring system

Unknown

Presence of indicators used in reporting

No evidence in public records

Presence of monitoring/ evaluation reports

No

Availability of a web-based monitoring tool

No

References

Lumpini Park Overall Plan
Source: Ref. 1
Lumpini Park - main pond area
Source: Ref. 2
Lumpini Park - Forest park area (render image)
Source: Ref. 6
Information about this nature-based solution was collected as part of the "NBS 2022" UNA Asian extension project funded by the Asia-Europe Foundation.